Contaminated and Hazardous
Waste Site Management
to describe organisms that are able to grow in either the presence or absence
of a specific environmental factor (e.g., oxygen). See also Facultative Anaerobe.
Anaerobes: Microorganisms that can grow in either the presence or the absence
of molecular oxygen. In the absence of oxygen these microorganism can utilize
another compound (e.g., sulfate or nitrate) as a terminal electron acceptor.
Shooting: A seismic refraction technique where the sensors (geophones) are deployed
on a segment of a circle centred on the seismic source. Variations in the time
of arrival are caused by radial variations in the velocity structure. Could be
used, for example, to search for low velocity anomalies caused by buried waste.
The immediate or ultimate change in a chemical typically brought about by chemical
or biological reaction.
A fracture or zone of fractures along which there has been a displacement of the
sides relative to one another and parallel to the fracture.
Study (FS): The analysis of the potential cleanup alternatives for a site. The
FS usually starts as soon as the RI is underway; together, they are commonly referred
to as the RI/FS.
Substances having positive and relatively large magnetic susceptibility as well
as generally large hysteresis and remanence. This is due to the interaction of
atoms and the coupling of magnetic moments aligned in opposition, which result
in non-zero net moments.
First Law: An equation describing the rate at which a gas transfers into solution.
The change in concentration of gas in solution is proportional to the product
of an overall mass transfer coefficient and the concentration gradient.
Second Law: An equation relating the change of concentration with time due to
diffusion to the change in concentration gradient with distance from the source
That space in which an effect, such as gravity or magnetism, is measurable.
Capacity: The maximum amount of water that a soil can retain after excess water
from saturated conditions has been drained by the force of gravity. Also called
Blank: Any sample submitted from the field identified as a blank.
Sample: A portion of material received to be analyzed that is contained in single
or multiple containers and identified by a unique Sample Number.
Pack: Clean, uniform and well-rounded sand or gravel which is placed between the
borehole wall and well screen to prevent formation material from entering through
the well screen. It also serves to stabilize the adjacent formation.
a) The attenuation of a signal's components based on a measurable property (usually
frequency). Filtering usually involves a numerical operation which enhances only
a portion of the signal. b) Fluid passage through a material which retains particles
or colloids above a certain size.
A treatment process for removing solid (particulate) matter from water by passing
the water through sand, activated carbon, or a man-made filter. The process is
often used to drain and disperse wastewater.
Element Model: An advanced numerical technique for solving partial differential
equations, most useful for hydrogeological sites with complex geometry. As with
finite difference models, a finite element model solves the hydrogeological system
over a grid of many subregions, or elements.
Atomic Absorption (AA): Atomic absorption which utilizes flame for excitation.
Point: Lowest temperature at which the vapour above a liquid can be ignited in
The flat land adjacient to a river, formed by deposition of fluvial materials.
Artesian Well: A well where the water level is above the ground surface.
Lines: Flow lines indicate the direction of groundwater flow towards points of
discharge. They are perpendicular to equipotential lines in homogeneous media.
Also known as streamlines.
Net: A geometric representation of a two-dimensional steady-state flow field using
intersecting lines joining points of equal hydraulic head and flow lines.
Tube: A calibrated flow measuring device made for a specific range of flow velocities
Flow: The movement of a liquid or gas.
Flux: The volume of fluid flowing through a specified cross-sectional area per
Deposits: Deposits related to a river or stream.
The rate of movement of mass through a unit cross-sectional area per unit time
in response to a concentration gradient or some advective force.
Sand: Waste sand often contaminated by metal processing and forming occurring
A specific subunit of an analytical protocol. For example, for full organics the
fractions are VOAs, SVs, and pesticides/Arochlors.
of Organic Carbon (foc): The portion or fraction of the solid material that is
organic carbon. Typically ranges from 0.05 (5%) in organic-rich soils to less
than 0.0001 (0.01%) in pure quartz beach sands.
A break in a rock formation as a result of structural stresses (e.g. faults, joints,
shears). If they are open, fractures may provide pathways for fluid movement.
Product: A petroleum hydrocarbon in the liquid ("free" or non-aqueous)
phase (see also
non-aqueous phase liquid, NAPL).
Drain System: A crushed rock drain system constructed of perforated pipes, which
is used to drain and disperse wastewater.
Domain: In geophysics, refers to measurements analyzed according to their constituent
frequencies. The usual alternative is time domain measurements.
Water/Salt Water Transition Zone: The interface zone occurring between fresh water
and saltwater undelying marine islands and coastal areas with groundwater occurring
below the surface of the ground in geologic formations under saturated conditions.
Aerobic, multicellular, nonphotosynthetic, heterotrophic microorganisms. The fungi
include mushrooms, yeast, molds, and smuts. Most fungi are saprophytes, obtaining
their nourishment from dead organic matter. Along with bacteria, fungi are the
principal organisms responsible for the decomposition of carbon in the biosphere.
Fungi have two ecological advantages over bacteria: (1) they can grow in low moisture
areas, and (2) the can grow in low pH environments.