CContaminated and Hazardous
Waste Site Management
Waste Treatment Plant: A facility that uses a series of tanks, screens, filters
and other treatment processes to remove pollutants from water.
Balance (Hydrologic Budget): A record of the outflow from, inflow to, and storage
in a hydrologic unit like an aquifer, drainage basin etc.
Purveyor: A public utility, municipal water company, county water district or
municipality that delivers drinking water to customers.
The land area that drains into a stream or other water body.
Table: Upper surface of a zone of saturation, where that surface is not formed
by a confining unit; water pressure in the porous medium is equal to atmospheric
pressure (the phreatic surface). The surface between the vadose zone and the groundwater;
that surface of a body of unconfined groundwater at which the pressure is equal
to that of the atmosphere.
The process during which a complex compound is reduced to its simpler component
parts, transported via physical processes, or biodegraded over time.
Development: This operation helps make water enter the well more easily and can
make the difference between a satisfactory and an unsatisfactory well. Different
techniques for well development can be used, the aim is to remove the smaller
sized particles from the aquifer surrounding the well screen and to provide a
coarser filter zone around the screen. The smaller sized particles are drawn into
the well screen and can then be removed by bailing or pumping.
The area immediately surrounding the top of a well, or the top of the well casing.
Interference: When the area of influence, or the cone of depression around a water
well comes into contact with or overlaps that of a neighbouring well pumping from
the same aquifer and thereby causes additional drawdown or drawdown interference
in the wells.
Log: A record describing geologic formations and well testing or development techniques
used during well construction. Often refers to a geophysical well log in which
the physical properties of the formations are measured by geophysical tools, E-logs,
neutron logs, etc..
Point: Also referred to as sand points, gravel points, are used in shallow permeable
unconfined (usually) aquifers generally less than 30 feet deep. Well points consist
of a short length of screened pipe with a sharp point on the bottom end. As the
pipe is driven into the ground, additional lengths of pipe are added to the top
end. Sand points are also available with a check valve at the lower end to enable
the pipe to be washed down in sand and fine gravel aquifers. Water can be pumped
down the pipe and it passes out the check valve at the bottom and washes
sand up the hole to the ground surface.
Screen: A cylindrical filter used to prevent sedimentfrom entering a water well.
There are several types of well screens, which can be ordered in various slot
widths, selected on the basis of the grain size of the aquifer material where
the well screen is to be located. In very fine grained aquifers, a zone of fine
gravel or coarse sand may be required to act as a filter between the screen and
Seals: Cover for the top of the well.
Yield: The volume of water discharged from a well in litres per minute (L/min),
litres per second (L/s),or cubic metres per day (m3/day).
The relative degree to which a fluid will spread on (or coat) a solid surface
in the presence of other immiscible fluids.
Weight: The weight of a sample aliquot including moisture (undried).
Bore Capillary Column: A gas chromatographic column with an internal diameter
(ID) that is greater than 0.32 mm. Columns with lesser diameters are classified
as narrow bore capillaries.
Ring: A circle of (phreatophyte) shrubs/trees (usually willows) that form around
periodically ponded low areas. These plants indicate very wet soil conditions.
A low, elongated row of material left uncovered to dry. Windrows are typically
arranged in parallel.
Titration: A chemical method used to estimate the amount of dissolved oxygen in